Forget Covid tests, health chiefs want monkeypox swabs!

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Lateral flow tests for monkeypox will be developed by government-backed scientists for fear of future outbreaks and the virus becoming endemic.

A group of 25 researchers from across the UK will develop tests for the virus – which will work in the same way as Covid swabs – following the country’s unprecedented outbreak of monkeypox.

Experts hope the tests, which would be rolled out internationally, would help diagnose people faster and slow the spread of the virus.

The team will also study the spread of monkeypox – which has been detected in 3,686 Britons since May – and monitor how effective vaccines are against it.

Until this year, the UK had only recorded seven cases of monkeypox and there was no documented spread of the virus in the community, which is mostly confined to West and Central Africa.

But an outbreak, confined almost entirely to gay and bisexual men, started in the UK and internationally in May. Since then, it has declined, with only 13 new cases discovered in the past week.

However, scientists still fear the virus could become endemic in Britain if it spreads on animals. And they warn that future outbreaks are likely due to increasing international travel.

UK Research and Innovation (UKRI), a government agency backing the project with £2 million, labeled the new consortium a ‘huge boost’ in the fight against monkey pox.

A group of 25 researchers from across the UK will develop tests for the virus - which will work similarly to Covid swabs (pictured) - following the country's unprecedented monkeypox outbreak

A group of 25 researchers from across the UK will develop tests for the virus – which will work similarly to Covid swabs (pictured) – following the country’s unprecedented monkeypox outbreak

As part of the effort to thwart the escalating outbreak, both confirmed cases and close contacts are being offered the Imvanex shot (pictured).  The strategy, known as ring vaccination, has been used in the past and has been proven to work

As part of the effort to thwart the escalating outbreak, both confirmed cases and close contacts are being offered the Imvanex shot (pictured).  The strategy, known as ring vaccination, has been used in the past and has been proven to work

As part of the effort to thwart the escalating outbreak, both confirmed cases and close contacts are being offered the Imvanex shot (pictured). The strategy, known as ring vaccination, has been used in the past and has been proven to work

Officials urge gay and bisexual men to be aware of any new lesions, rashes or scabs and to contact a sexual health clinic

Officials urge gay and bisexual men to be aware of any new lesions, rashes or scabs and to contact a sexual health clinic

Officials urge gay and bisexual men to be aware of any new lesions, rashes or scabs and to contact a sexual health clinic

How do you catch monkeypox and what are the symptoms? EVERYTHING you need to know about the tropical virus

How do you catch monkeypox?

Until this global outbreak, monkeypox was mostly spread by infected rodents — including rats, mice and even squirrels — in western and central Africa.

People can get the disease — which comes from the same family as smallpox — if they are bitten by infected animals, touch their blood, body fluids or scabs, or eat game or bushmeat.

The orthopox virus, which causes monkey pox, can enter the body through broken skin – even if it is not visible, as well as the eyes, nose and mouth.

Despite being mainly spread by wild animals, monkeypox was known to be able to be transmitted between humans. However, health leaders insist it was very rare until the current outbreak.

Person-to-person spread can occur if someone touches clothing or bedding that has been used by an infected person, or through direct contact with the virus’s tell-tale scabs. The virus can also spread through coughing and sneezing.

In the continuing rise in the number of cases, experts think the virus passes skin-to-skin contact during sex – although this exact mechanism has never been seen until now.

How deadly is it?

Monkeypox is usually mild and most patients recover without treatment within a few weeks.

Yet the disease kills up to 10 percent of cases. But this high rate is thought to be partly due to a historical lack of testing, meaning that a tenth of known cases have died rather than a tenth of all infections.

However, in milder species, the death rate is closer to one in 100 — similar to when Covid first struck.

The West African version of the virus, which is mild compared to the Central African strain, is behind the current spread. No deaths have been reported as part of the ongoing outbreak.

How is it tested?

It can be difficult to diagnose monkeypox as it is often confused with other infections such as chickenpox.

Monkeypox is confirmed by a clinical assessment by a health professional and a test in the UK specialist laboratory – the UKHSA’s Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory.

The test involves taking samples of skin lesions, such as part of the scab, moisture from the lesions, or pieces of dry scab.

What are the symptoms?

It can take up to three weeks for monkeypox-infected patients to develop any of the tell-tale symptoms.

Early signs of the virus include fever, headache, muscle aches, back pain, swollen lymph nodes, chills, and exhaustion — meaning it could theoretically be mistaken for other common illnesses.

But the most unusual feature is a rash that often starts on the face and then spreads to other parts of the body, usually the hands and feet.

The rash changes and goes through several stages before finally forming a scab, which later falls off.

The research group, supported by £2 million in government funding, will have 25 experts from 12 institutions across the country study the ongoing outbreak.

They will develop tests to accelerate diagnosis, including lateral flow and LAMP tests that have also been used during the Covid pandemic.

The lateral flow swabs are manufactured ‘to scale’ in collaboration with test maker Global Access Diagnostics, so that they can be distributed worldwide.

Currently, monkeypox is difficult to test and diagnose as it is often confused with other infections such as chickenpox.

The virus is confirmed by a clinical assessment by a health professional and a test in the UK’s specialist laboratory – the UKHSA’s Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory.

The test involves taking samples of skin lesions, such as part of the scab, moisture from the lesions, or pieces of dry scab.

Professor Bryan Charleston, co-head of the consortium and director of the Pirbright Institute, said better testing would provide clinicians with vital information about whether a rash is caused by monkeypox or another condition.

Pap smears would also speed up monkey pox diagnosis and limit the spread of the virus.

Professor Charleston said: ‘The implications of the current monkeypox outbreak are enormous.

“In addition to tackling the current outbreak, we also need to prepare well for the next outbreak, because there is a huge reservoir of infections worldwide.

“One of the most important ways we can do this is to develop rapid tests, which are very important to help clinicians on the frontline manage the disease.”

In addition, the researchers will test monkey pox drugs by exposing human cells to the potential treatments in lab experiments. They then decide which canned medicines need further testing.

The team will monitor how the virus infects people and how the immune system reacts to identify future drug targets.

Positive monkeypox samples from infected Britons will be studied to monitor how the virus evolves.

The consortium will also identify potential overflow routes of transmission between animals and humans.

Health chiefs are concerned that the virus could become endemic in the UK – meaning it occurs naturally here – by spreading from humans to animals such as rodents and squirrels.

This would increase the risk of outbreaks, because Britons can contract the virus by coming into contact with an infected animal.

Thousands of infected people, their close contacts and those at high risk of contracting monkeypox, such as health workers, were offered a smallpox vaccine as part of the UK’s efforts to thwart the outbreak.

The jabs work against his milder cousin Monkeypox and are offered to close contacts and some gay and bisexual men as part of efforts to thwart the ever-growing outbreak.

The researchers will monitor the effectiveness of these injections by monitoring the immune responses of up to 200 vaccinated people after their first and second doses. This will determine how effective the jabs are and how long they provide protection.

The team is led by the Pirbright Institute and the MRC-University of Glasgow Center for Virus Research.

They will work with officials from the Animal and Plant Health Agency, the UK Health Security Agency and the Defense Science and Technology Laboratory to inform the UK and global public health response to monkeypox.

Professor Massimo Palmarini, co-leader of the consortium and virologist at the MRC-University of Glasgow Center for Virus Research, said: ‘Monkeypox is a public health challenge, so taking decisive, collective action to better understand this virus, is of the utmost importance.

“By bringing together research expertise in different areas, we will use the UK’s leading knowledge to learn more about how the virus works and spreads and lay the groundwork for developing potential new treatments.”

Professor Geoffrey Smith, a virologist at the University of Cambridge, said: “Few would have predicted that the monkeypox virus would cause a global epidemic by 2022.

‘The ability to respond quickly to this new challenge has been greatly aided not only by UKRI’s prompt and welcome response, but also by decades of support for the study of orthopoxviruses from UKRI and the Wellcome Trust.

‘The information from those studies is valuable in the fight against the monkeypox virus.’

Professor Melanie Welham, Executive Chair of the Research Council for Biotechnology and Biological Sciences, said: ‘One of the real strengths of the UK’s scientific response to disease outbreaks is the way we can draw on leading researchers from across the country, who use their expertise to deliver results quickly.

‘Long-term support for animal and human virus research has enabled us to respond flexibly.

“This new national consortium will study the unprecedented monkeypox outbreak to better understand how to deal with it. This will soon be applied in global public health strategies, developing new diagnostic tests and identifying potential therapies.”

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