World War II shipwreck is leaking TOXIC explosives and heavy metals into the water, study finds

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A Nazi patrol boat sunk by RAF bombers during World War II is leaking toxic explosives and heavy metals to the bottom of the North Sea, scientists have found.

The V-1302 John Mahn, a fishing trawler requisitioned by Adolf Hitler’s troops, lies off the coast of Belgium after being destroyed in 1942.

Eighty years later, experts at Ghent University discovered that the shipwreck – 115 feet deep – damaged the surrounding seafloor.

PhD student Josefien Van Landuyt: ‘The general public is often very interested in shipwrecks because of their historical value, but the potential environmental impact of these wrecks is often overlooked.

Scientists from Ghent University have discovered an 80-year-old shipwreck that still leaks toxic explosives and heavy metals into the water around it.  Pictured: Cracked deck plating of the V-1302 John Mahn that was damaged by the bomb that hit amidships

Scientists from Ghent University have discovered an 80-year-old shipwreck that still leaks toxic explosives and heavy metals into the water around it. Pictured: Cracked deck plating of the V-1302 John Mahn that was damaged by the bomb that hit amidships

The V-1302 John Mahn was used as a patrol boat in World War II, but sank in 1942 after being attacked off the coast of Belgium by the British RAF during 'The Channel Dash'.  Artwork: 'The Channel Dash' by Ralph Gillies-Cole

The V-1302 John Mahn was used as a patrol boat in World War II, but sank in 1942 after being attacked off the coast of Belgium by the British RAF during 'The Channel Dash'.  Artwork: 'The Channel Dash' by Ralph Gillies-Cole

The V-1302 John Mahn was used as a patrol boat in World War II, but sank in 1942 after being attacked off the coast of Belgium by the British RAF during ‘The Channel Dash’. Artwork: ‘The Channel Dash’ by Ralph Gillies-Cole

V-1302 JOHN MAHN

The V-1302 John Mahn was a German fishing trawler requisitioned during World War II for use as a patrol boat.

In 1942, the ship was used to protect the German battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau while being transported back to Germany from Brest, France.

After becoming aware of this voyage, the British Royal Navy planned to attack their fleet of 66 ships when they reached the Straits of Dover.

In what is now known as ‘the Channel Dash’, the RAF sent Swordfish planes to attack the German boats, but they were all shot down.

Although only minor damage was inflicted on Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, the V-1302 John Mahn did not survive the attack and sank to the bottom of the sea.

“While wrecks can function as artificial reefs and have tremendous human narrative value, we should not forget that they can be dangerous man-made objects that have been inadvertently introduced into a natural environment.

“Today, new shipwrecks are being removed for this very reason.”

The seabed of the North Sea is covered with thousands of ship and plane wrecks, war agents and millions of tons of conventional munitions such as grenades and bombs.

Wrecks contain hazardous substances such as petroleum and explosives, which can be harmful to the marine environment.

It is estimated that World War I and World War II shipwrecks around the world together contain between 2.5 million and 20.4 million tons of petroleum products.

However, there is still a stark lack of information about the location of these wrecks and the effect they have on the microbiome and geochemistry of their environment.

As part of their university’s North Sea Wrecks project, which explores maritime heritage sites, Ms. Van Landuyt and colleagues studied the V-1302 John Mahn.

She said: ‘We wanted to see if old shipwrecks in our part of the sea are still shaping the local microbial communities and if they are still affecting the surrounding sediment.

‘This microbial analysis is unique within the project.’

To analyze the biochemistry and geochemistry around the shipwreck, the researchers took samples of the steel hull and the sediment surrounding it.

To analyze the biochemistry and geochemistry around the shipwreck, the researchers took samples of the steel hull and the sediment surrounding it.

To analyze the biochemistry and geochemistry around the shipwreck, the researchers took samples of the steel hull and the sediment surrounding it.

Their study, published today in Frontiers in Marine Science, reveals that heavy metals were present, such as nickel and copper, as well as arsenic and explosive compounds.  Pictured: The shipwreck of the V-1302 John Mahn

Their study, published today in Frontiers in Marine Science, reveals that heavy metals were present, such as nickel and copper, as well as arsenic and explosive compounds.  Pictured: The shipwreck of the V-1302 John Mahn

Their study, published today in Frontiers in Marine Science, reveals that heavy metals were present, such as nickel and copper, as well as arsenic and explosive compounds. Pictured: The shipwreck of the V-1302 John Mahn

The V-1302 John Mahn was a German fishing trawler requisitioned during World War II for use as a patrol boat.

In 1942, the ship was used to protect the German battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau while being transported back to Germany from Brest, France.

After becoming aware of this voyage, the British Royal Navy planned to attack their fleet of 66 ships when they reached the Straits of Dover.

In what is now known as ‘the Channel Dash’, the RAF sent Swordfish planes to attack the German boats, but they were all shot down.

Although only minor damage was inflicted on Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, the V-1302 John Mahn did not survive the attack and sank to the bottom of the sea.

Pictured: Battleships 'Scharnhorst' and 'Gneisenau' and the heavy cruiser 'Prinz Eugen' making their dramatic flight across the English Channel in 'The Channel Dash'

Pictured: Battleships 'Scharnhorst' and 'Gneisenau' and the heavy cruiser 'Prinz Eugen' making their dramatic flight across the English Channel in 'The Channel Dash'

Pictured: Battleships ‘Scharnhorst’ and ‘Gneisenau’ and the heavy cruiser ‘Prinz Eugen’ making their dramatic flight across the English Channel in ‘The Channel Dash’

Sampling locations around the shipwreck The coal bunker was located in the aft of the ship on the forecastle/aft side indicated by the red cross.  The bombs the ship was equipped with were mainly found at the front and rear of the ship

Sampling locations around the shipwreck The coal bunker was located in the aft of the ship on the forecastle/aft side indicated by the red cross.  The bombs the ship was equipped with were mainly found at the front and rear of the ship

Sampling locations around the shipwreck The coal bunker was located in the aft of the ship on the forecastle/aft side indicated by the red cross. The bombs the ship was equipped with were mainly found at the front and rear of the ship

To analyze the biochemistry and geochemistry surrounding the shipwreck, the researchers took samples of the steel hull and the sediment surrounding it.

Their study, published today in Frontiers in Marine Sciencereveals that heavy metals were present, such as nickel and copper, as well as arsenic and explosive compounds.

There was also evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); chemicals naturally found in coal, crude oil and gasoline.

They found varying degrees of concentrations of these toxic pollutants, depending on the distance from the shipwreck.

The highest metal concentrations were found in the sample closest to the ship’s coal bunker and in the freshly deposited sediment in the wake of the wreck.

The highest PAH concentrations were closest to the ship.

Ms Van Landuyt: ‘Although we don’t see these old shipwrecks and many of us don’t know where they are, they can still pollute our marine ecosystem.

“In fact, their advancing age can increase environmental risk through corrosion, opening previously closed spaces.

“As such, their environmental impact is still evolving.”

The sediment samples from bow to stern (A) and from port to starboard (B) with their total heavy metal content

The sediment samples from bow to stern (A) and from port to starboard (B) with their total heavy metal content

The sediment samples from bow to stern (A) and from port to starboard (B) with their total heavy metal content

The sediment samples from bow to stern (C) and from port to starboard (D) with their content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

The sediment samples from bow to stern (C) and from port to starboard (D) with their content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

The sediment samples from bow to stern (C) and from port to starboard (D) with their content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

The sediment samples from bow to stern (E) and from port to starboard (F) with their total explosive (TNT) contents

The sediment samples from bow to stern (E) and from port to starboard (F) with their total explosive (TNT) contents

The sediment samples from bow to stern (E) and from port to starboard (F) with their total explosive (TNT) contents

The researchers also studied the microbe content in the sediment samples from around the ship and found that it had been degraded by the contaminants.

They found known PAH-degrading microbes such as Rhodobacteraceae and Chromatiaceae in samples with the highest contaminant content.

In addition, sulfate-reducing bacteria, such as Desulfobulbia, were present in the hull samples, which likely led to corrosion of the steel hull.

Ms Van Landuyt said: ‘People often forget that we humans have already had a significant impact below the sea surface on the local animals, microbes and plants that live there and still have an impact, involving chemicals, fossil fuels, heavy metals from – sometimes ancient – wrecks that we don’t even remember being there.

‘We only surveyed one ship, at one depth, at one location.

‘To get a better picture of the total impact of shipwrecks on our North Sea, a large number of shipwrecks at different locations would have to be sampled.’

World’s Deepest Shipwreck FOUND: WWII US Navy Ship Discovered More Than 22,600 Feet Below Surface

More than 22,600 feet below the surface of the Pacific Ocean lies a World War II United States Navy destroyer that has been declared the world’s deepest shipwreck.

The USS Destroyer Escort Samuel B. Roberts (DE-413), better known as the Sammy B, was in the Philippine Sea in June.

The ship crashed during the Battle of Samar in October 1944 after being hit by Japanese fire.

However, the Sammy B was not discovered by scientists, but by Texas billionaire Victor Vescovo, who owns a deep-diving submarine.

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